THE IN VITRO BIOSYNTHESIS OF ESTRADIOL-17β-4 …
T1 - Effects of estradiol on prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis and prostaglandin metabolic enzyme activity in rat kidneys.
Estrogen biosynthesis - Pathway maps
AB - We have previously reported that estradiol treatment stimulates prostacyclin production by cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, through the stimulation of fatty acid cyclooxygenase and prostacyclin synthetase activities. In order to see whether estradiol stimulates the fatty acid cyclooxygenase activity in platelets, intact rats were treated with estradiol, and thromboxane biosynthesis in platelets and prostacyclin production by aortas were investigated. Estradiol significantly stimulates prostacyclin production by aortas. However, no significant effect on thromboxane biosynthesis in platelets is observed. Our present results support the idea that estradiol would be a protective hormone in atherosclerotic heart disease.
AB - The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of environmental chemicals and regulates many physiological functions, including processes in female reproduction. Previous studies demonstrated that Ahr deletion leads to slow ovarian follicle growth because of impaired estradiol production and reduced gonadotropin responsiveness in prepubertal mice. These studies, however, did not determine how Ahr deletion impairs estradiol production or whether the effects of Ahr deletion on follicle growth and estradiol production persist in adulthood. Thus, the present study evaluated the effect of Ahr deletion on steroid precursors in the estradiol biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, this study evaluated follicle growth and estradiol biosynthesis in wild-type (WT) and Ahr knockout (AhrKO) antral follicles at different stages of sexual maturity. AhrKO antral follicles from prepubertal mice had slower growth, produced lower estradiol levels, and had reduced cyclin D2 (Ccnd2) expression compared to WT follicles. AhrKO follicles from adult mice, however, produced higher androgen levels and expressed higher levels of Ccnd2 compared to WT follicles. Furthermore, AhrKO follicles from adult mice had growth to that of WT follicles. These findings suggest that the AHR regulates follicle growth by altering factors involved in the estradiol biosynthesis pathway as well as key regulators of follicle growth and that this role of AHR depends on stage of sexual maturity.
Estradiol, like other steroids, is derived from cholesterol
N2 - The effect of estradiol administration on renal prostaglandin (PG) E2 biosynthetic activity in rats was studied. A specific radioimmunoassay for PGE2 was developed and applied in the quantitation of PGE2 biosynthesis in kidney. Conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid into PGE2 by renal microsomal fraction was assayed. Formation of PGE2 was linear in fashion up to 5 min incubation at 37°C, and linear in fashion up to 3.5 mg of microsome used as enzyme source. The renal biosynthesis of PGE2 was significantly increased by estradiol treatment.
AB - The effect of estradiol administration on renal prostaglandin (PG) E2 biosynthetic activity in rats was studied. A specific radioimmunoassay for PGE2 was developed and applied in the quantitation of PGE2 biosynthesis in kidney. Conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid into PGE2 by renal microsomal fraction was assayed. Formation of PGE2 was linear in fashion up to 5 min incubation at 37°C, and linear in fashion up to 3.5 mg of microsome used as enzyme source. The renal biosynthesis of PGE2 was significantly increased by estradiol treatment.
Estrogen biosynthesis and receptors - ResearchGate
genotoxic) properties of synthetic hormones were differentiated by measuring the rates of catechol estrogen and methyl ester formation by a weak carcinogen, 17a-ethinylestradiol, and by a strong hormonal carcinogen, moxestrol.
In hamsters treated chronically with relatively high doses by subcutaneous implantation, certain potent synthetic estrogens such as ethinylestradiol result in < 10% tumour incidence in kidney, whereas treatment with other estrogens result in renal tumour development in nearly all animals.
Several germline mutations have been described
Estrogen biosynthesis and receptors.
Effect of estradiol-17beta on collagen biosynthesis, degradation and reutilization in ..
Sex hormone synthesis, regulation, and function | …
Estradiol beta-D-xyloside, an efficient primer for heparan sulfate biosynthesis
Sex hormone synthesis, regulation, and function ; ..
Chemical nature of the adrenal hormones Outline the steps involved in steroid biosynthesis in adrenal ..
Sex hormone synthesis, regulation, and function
of studies Regimen Intermittent and cyclic 3.0b 2.4-3.8 8 Continuous 2.9b 2.2-3.8 8 Type of estrogen Conjugated 2.5d 2.1-2.9 9 Synthetice 1.3b 1.1-1.6 7 Time since last use (years) < 1 4.1b 2.9-5.7 3 1-4 3.7 2.5-5.5 3 > 5 2.3 1.8-3.1 5 Stage of tumour 0-1 4.2 3.1-5.7 3 2-4 1.4 0.8-2.4 3 Not invasive 6.2 4.5-8.4 4 Invasive 3.8b 2.9-5.1 6 Death from endometrial 2,7 0.9-8.0 3 cancer a p for homogeneity, < 0.0001 b p for homogeneity, < 0.01 c Residential-, neighbourhood- and population-based controls d p for homogeneity, < 0.005 e Primarily ethinylestradiol, estradiol valerate, estriol, and other, unspecified estrogens; diethylstilbestrol and estrogens combined with androgen were excluded, except when such use was included with use of all synthetic estrogens 22.214.171.124 Cancers of the liver and biliary tract Two cohort and two case-control studies that addressed the association between use of postmenopausal estrogen therapy and the risk for cancers of the liver or biliary tract showed no alteration in risk.
140244: Estradiol, Sensitive, LC/MS | LabCorp
Routes of administration and dosages of commonly used estrogens Estrogen Route Dosage Natural and equine estrogens Conjugated equine estrogens Oral 0.3-2.5 mg/day Intramuscular 25 mg/day Intravenous 25 mg/day Vaginal 2-4 g/day Piperazine estrone sulfate Oral 0.625-2.5 mg/day Vaginal 2-4 g/day Estradiol Patch 0.05-0.1 mg every 3-4 days Vaginal 1-4 g/day Micronized, valerate Oral 1-2 mg/day Valerate Intramuscular 10 mg/month Cypionate Intramuscular 1-5 mg/month Synthetic estrogens Ethinylestradiol Oral 20-50 µg/day Mestranol Oral 50-100 µg/day Diethylstilbestrol Oral 1-5 mg/day Quinestrol Oral 0.1 mg/day Table 17.
Gynecomastia : Practice Essentials, Background, Etiology
The quantity of steroid in the implant was not described, but the release rate was predicted to increase the estradiol concentrations by approximately 14-fold while maintaining normal plasma testosterone concentrations.
OHPG - Clinical: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Serum
For these purposes, synthetic progestational agents are usually administered, which differ in structure and function from natural progesterone (Williams & Stancel, 1996).
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