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Aquatic ape hypothesis - Wikipedia

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Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT): Sink or Swim?

One such idea is the aquatic ape hypothesis (AAH) which attempts to explain a number of human adaptations with the single explanation of a semi-aquatic ancestor.

A critique of the aquatic ape theory, with examples refuting the basic premises of the theory.

Canfield’s original hypothesis, which seems largely valid today, is that the deep oceans were not oxygenated until the Ediacaran Period, which followed the Cryogenian; the process did not begin until about 580 mya and first completed about 560 mya. The wildest swing in Earth’s entire geological record begins about 575 mya and ends about 550 mya, and is called the Shuram excursion. Explaining the Shuram excursion is one of the most controversial areas of geology today, with numerous proposed hypotheses. When the controversies are finally resolved, if they resolved, the Shuram and excursions, even though they go in opposite directions, I suspect will likely be both related to the dynamics of ice ages and the rise of oxygen levels. Ediacaran fauna, the first large, complex organisms to ever appear on Earth, also first appeared about 575 mya, when the Shuram excursion began. I strongly doubt that Earth’s first appearance of large complex life at the exact geological timescale moment of the wildest carbon-isotope swing in Earth’s history will prove to be a coincidence. The numerous competing hypotheses regarding the Shuram excursion include:

The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (AAH) Essay - 123HelpMe

Aquatic Ape Hypothesis | Sasquatch Chronicles

The (c. 15 kya to 11.8 kya) succeeded the Kebaran culture. The Natufian village at in today’s Syria was established about 13.5 kya and was situated on a gazelle migration route. The residents of that village of a few hundred people also . Those villagers became Earth’s first known farmers, and they had dogs. The during the Younger Dryas and resettled after it ended. The effect of a harsher climate may have , which began there about 11 kya. By seven kya, the settlement had grown to several thousand people, and was then abandoned due to aridity. No evidence of warfare is associated with the settlement. A compelling recent hypothesis is that agriculture could not have developed in warfare’s presence, as farmers would have been too vulnerable to raids by hungry hunters. In the four places on Earth where civilization seems to have independently developed: the Fertile Crescent, China, Mesoamerica, and the Andes, no evidence of violent conflict exists before those civilizations, fed by the first crops, began growing into states. Those states are called “pristine” states, as no other states influenced their development. Also, it is considered likely that a primary impetus for beginning agriculture in those regions was the decimation of animals to hunt. Not only was the easy meat rendered largely extinct, but those animals would have also been competitors for crops. The peaceful agricultural villages that , in which women's status was closer to men's than at any time before the Industrial Revolution, actually existed, if only for a relatively brief time, in only a few places.

Europe was a crucible for violence probably ever since the human conquest of Neanderthals, and evidence for warfare and mass violence increases as the timeline progressed from then. But going back to those , violence is not instinctual as much as calculated, and is a response to economic scarcity above all else. However, those early religious rituals were not only a method to form group cohesion; they were also a way to condition men to throw their lives away while trying to take the lives of others. The rituals and rites of passage for men were often extremely painful ordeals that conditioned them for the short life of a warrior, and forming highly contrasting in-group/out-group beliefs that facilitated killing other people. The portion of the human brain where emotions appear to be seated, in the , is no larger than in our great ape cousins. It is well-known that fear shuts down the neocortex, as animals prepare for fight-or-flight responses, and it is no different with humans. However, the response is much more dramatic with humans, with their huge neocortexes and frontal lobes. So the human response to fear is losing much of what makes humans seemingly sentient. Those religious rituals seem designed to bypass the neocortex and form a bridge to the limbic system where emotions rule. Religion seems to have arisen as a to warfare, but that will be explored in the next chapter, which covers the civilizing of humanity, which is the .

The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis by Elaine Morgan - Goodreads

Nov 01, 1982 · The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis has 250 ratings and 29 reviews

Kirschvink noted that reappeared in the geological record during the possible Snowball Earth times, after vanishing about a billion years earlier. Kirschvink noted that iron cannot increase to levels where they would create BIFs if the global ocean was oxygenated. Kirschvink proposed that the sea ice not only killed the photosynthesizers, but it also separated the ocean from the atmosphere so that the global ocean became anoxic. Iron from volcanoes on the ocean floor would build up in solution during the , and during the greenhouse phase the oceans would become oxygenated and the iron would fall out in BIFs. Other geological evidence for the vacillating icehouse and greenhouse conditions was the formation of cap carbonates over the glacial till. It was a global phenomenon; wherever the Snowball Earth till was, cap carbonates were atop them. In geological circles, deposited during the past 100 million years are considered to be of tropical origin, so scientists think that the cap carbonates reflected a tropical environment. The fact of cap carbonates atop glacial till is one of the strongest pieces of evidence for the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Kirschvink finished his paper by noting that the eon of complex life came on the heels of the Snowball Earth, and scouring the oceans of life would have presented virgin oceans for the rapid spread of life in the greenhouse periods, and this could have initiated the evolutionary novelty that led to complex life.

Part of the hypothesis for skyrocketing oxygen levels during the late Proterozoic was that high carbon dioxide levels, combined with a continent that had been ground down by glaciers, and the resumption of the hydrological cycle, which would have vanished during the Snowball Earth events, would have created conditions of dramatically increased erosion, which would have buried carbon (the cap carbonates are part of that evidence) and thus helped oxygenate the atmosphere. Evidence for that increased erosion also came in the form of strontium isotope analysis. Two of strontium’s stable isotopes are . Earth’s mantle is enriched in strontium-86 while the crust is enriched in strontium-87, so basalts exposed to the ocean in the oceanic volcanic ridges are enriched in strontium-86 while continental rocks are enriched in strontium-87. If erosion is higher than normal, then ocean sediments will be enriched in strontium-87, which analysis of Ediacaran sediments confirmed. That evidence, combined with carbon isotope ratios, provides a strong indication of high erosion and high carbon burial, which would have increased atmospheric oxygen levels. There is other evidence of increasing atmospheric oxygen content during the late Proterozoic, such as an increase in rare earth elements in Ediacaran sediments. Although there is still plenty of controversy, today's consensus is that the Cryogenian is when , where they have largely stayed, although as this essay will later discuss, oxygen levels have varied widely since the late Proterozoic (from perhaps only a few percent to 35%).

Dolphin brains and the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis: a dubious link
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Human Knowledge: Foundations and Limits

Although our species, (named if we consider that Neanderthals and an are subspecies of but I will use in this essay to denote today’s humans), is the only survivor of the past several million years of human-line evolution, many of our cousins and ancestors were recognizably human. When did language begin, especially spoken language? Language certainly predated the appearance of . All great apes readily learn sign language, and even when monkeys chatter, the , and there is plenty of evidence that great ape vocalizations can . The and their corvid cousins can be hard to believe; they can solve some problems better than great apes can, and birds do not have a neocortex, but seems to function like the neocortex does. Becoming that began to . If fossils are sufficiently preserved, important anatomical features can provide key evidence for human abilities and behaviors. Turkana Boy, for instance, had his inner ear, which is responsible for balance, preserved well enough so that it provided more evidence that he did not spend time in trees (it is larger in primates that regularly climb). Similarly, the , which succeeded , apparently enabled keener hearing than its predecessors were capable of, and may have reflected the beginnings of spoken language. There is strong evidence that . As with many other human traits, the potential for language seems to have existed with monkeys (), and it kept developing more sophistication over vast stretches of time, and structural and cognitive changes interacted as human language developed into today’s version.

Blue space: The importance of water for preference, …

From the initial appearance of about 2.0-1.8 mya, Europe was periodically buried under the ice sheets that began growing and receding when the first stone tools were made, so tended to appear and disappear in Europe. The fact that humans evolved and spread during an ice age has led to competing hypotheses about many aspects of humanity’s rise. Although , and there have been 17 identified episodes of advancing and retreating ice sheets, particularly in North America and northern Eurasia, the early ones were not as severe, and they did not achieve , as the diagram below shows. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Characteristics unique to human - MetaPrimate

Anthropologists and primate researchers , but relatively recent scientific findings have disproven that notion. , and it is more sophisticated with great apes. It took a few million years after the human/chimp split for our ancestors to learn to , and that culture then spread widely in Africa. The , , and were probably all closely related and at least partly interdependent, but little seemed to change . Then the and possessed a larger brain, and new tools and behaviors are evident . The timeframes continually shrank between major events in the human journey. Only 200 thousand years later, and , and new behaviors are in evidence. Only 100 thousand years after that, anatomically modern humans appeared. Only 30 thousand years after that, about 170 kya, , probably due to necessity, where life once again was eked out on the margins, and those humans may have decorated their bodies. About 100 kya, innovation seems to have accelerated again, and by 75-60 kya there is evidence of . Needles and perhaps even arrowheads first appeared about 60 kya. There is no doubt among scientists that members of made those advances, and their artifacts provided evidence of increasing cultural and technical sophistication, which soon left Neanderthals and all other land animals far behind. About 75-70 kya, a , and there is controversy today whether that eruption was partly responsible for the that passed through not long afterward. What became today’s humanity seems to have nearly gone extinct at that bottleneck.

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