The synthesis of glycogen in prokaryotes is regulated at ..
This slide summarizes the enzyme reactions that occur in glycogen synthesis and ..
The initiation of glycogen synthesis, BioEssays | …
Glycogenesis is an important metabolic activity in which molecules of glucose in the body is converted to glycogen in order to be stored in the liver etc. In theory, it is defined as a process in which glucose molecules are added to glycogen chains. Glycogenesis is activated when the body is in a state of rest or during high glucose level in the blood (due to high carbohydrate diet or due to diabetes) thus making insulin activate this process to level. However the synthesis of glycogen largely depends on the energy and glucose levels in the body.
Glycogen is a stored form of glucose, or sugar, used by the body for energy and for maintaining the level of blood glucose. Whelan’s discovery of glycogenin provided the missing link in the biosynthetic pathway for how glucose is turned into glycogen, the answer to a puzzle that had baffled other investigators for a century. His work and the techniques he developed for isolating and characterizing molecular structures like glycogen have become scientific standards.
On the origin of primer for glycogen synthesis
Even if you’re racing at a reasonable pace and you’ve done a good job of carboloading in the days before the marathon, you still have only about 2,000 calories worth of glycogen stored in the muscles and liver; that’s about enough to get you to—surprise!—mile 20.
“It’s the equivalent to an ignition key in an automobile—the engine won’t turn on unless the key is turned,” Whelan explains. Similarly, glycogen synthesis would not occur without a primer to set the process into motion.
Initiation of glycogen synthesis
Whelan, professor of biochemistry and molecular biology and chairman emeritus of the University of Miami Miller School Of Medicine’s Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, began researching starch and glycogen synthesis in 1950.
In 1992 Whelan was named a fellow of the Royal Society, one of the highest honors granted in the scientific community. In 2006 he received the University of Miami’s Distinguished Faculty Scholar Award for lifetime achievement in research. In the five decades between launching his research and receiving this distinguished recognition, he endured skepticism, dead ends, and lost funding. Today, Whelan’s discovery of the primer for glycogen synthesis is an accepted principle included in almost all biochemistry textbooks. He credits his accomplishments to determination, talented colleagues, and just plain good luck. “This is a story of serendipity—a succession of lucky experiences every practicing scientist will be familiar with,” Whelan says.
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Glycogenin is an enzyme involved in converting glucose to glycogen
A protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of active glycogen synthase inhibits glycogen synthesis
Glycogenesis - Definition, Pathway, Steps and Regulation
Glycogen - Wikipedia
Glycogen Biosynthesis; Glycogen Breakdown - Oregon …
Glycogenin - Wikipedia
Glycogenoses - Neuromuscular Home Page
The runner’s primary fuel sources are carbohydrates (in the form of blood glucose and glycogen, a polymer of glucose stored in the muscles and liver) and fats (free fatty acids in the bloodstream and muscle triglycerides, molecules containing three fatty acids).
What is Glycogenesis? - InnovateUs
When Whelan first began working on glycogen and starch, Carl and Gerty Cori had won the 1947 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their synthesis of glycogen, the process by which the body converts glucose into glycogen, the form in which sugar is stored. They identified and purified a number of the enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, and their work ultimately advanced scientific understanding of metabolic regulation.
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So in 1963 Whelan persuaded the CIBA Foundation (now known as the Novartis Foundation) to organize a symposium in London to explore findings in glycogen research. The historic meeting, which brought together past and future Nobel Prize winners along with other top scientists, showed “that the field was far from moribund.” Inspired by the discussions of glycogen, Whelan began searching for the missing component of the glycogen synthesizing system, the primer that would switch on glycogen synthesis.
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For seven years, from 1980 to 1987, the NIH disagreed with Whelan’s lab’s findings: “This reviewer is troubled by the repeated inferences that glycogenin is the primer for glycogen synthesis,” stated one NIH critique.
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With this, their work was accepted, and NIH funding was restored. Four years later, the Royal Society elected him a fellow, citing “the elucidation of the role of a protein primer in the biosynthesis of glycogen.”
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Glycogenesis is the productionof glycogen from glucose and occurs (primarily in the liver and skeletalmuscles) when blood glucose levels are too high (for example, after a meal).
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