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If the thesis is for a PhD, the university requires that it make an original contribution to human knowledge: your research must discover something hitherto unknown.

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Sea stars () showed no mortality at 10 and 25 mg manganese/litre (as manganese chloride); sea stars exposed to 50, 100, or 200 mg/litre had median survival times of 72, 18, and 14.4 h, respectively (Hansen & Bjerregaard, 1995). Manganese (0.5 mg/litre) had no significant effect on the feeding rate of in 6-day tests (Maltby & Crane, 1994). Macdonald et al. (1988) reported a significant reduction in survival and hatching of yellow crab () embryos at >0.01 mg manganese/litre (as manganese chloride) in 7-day seawater tests. However, it should be noted that because this species broods embryos externally on the abdomen, the embryos are exposed to contaminants in waters and sediments continuously. Concentrations of >100 mg/litre gave 100% mortality of crab embryos over 7 days. Concentrations of 0.01–10 mg/litre gave 27–45% mortality; however, the response was not concentration-dependent. Hatching of embryos was also decreased at manganese concentrations of 0.01–10 mg/litre, compared with controls. Eggs of the crab accumulate manganese (and other metals) during ovogenesis, and, when the eggs are extruded, manganese also adsorbs to the chitinous vitelline membrane (Martin, 1976). This bioconcentration of manganese may explain why crab embryos are killed and larval hatching is impaired at lower manganese concentrations compared with other invertebrates.

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At this stage, think hard about the logic of the presentation: within chapters, it is often possible to present the ideas in different order, and not all arrangements will be equally easy to follow.

Sediments of Outer Malletts Bay (Vermont, USA) in Lake Champlain were found to contain arsenic, manganese, and nickel levels above proposed sediment quality guidelines. exposed to sediment pore water showed acute mortality, and this was correlated with manganese concentrations (23–39 mg total manganese/litre). Adding EDTA or temporarily increasing the pH from 7 to 11 reduced the toxicity of the pore water (Boucher & Watzin, 1999). In a metal-contaminated estuary in North Carolina, USA, the high frequency of blue crabs () with shell disease (lesions) was ascribed to manganese toxicity, since the manganese concentration was always highest in the diseased crabs; however, no statistical cause–effect relationship was shown (Weinstein et al., 1992). Deposition of manganese dioxide on the gills of Norway lobster () following hypoxic conditions in the south-east Kattegat, Sweden, has on occasion given rise to a brown or black discoloration of the gills and black corroded areas on the carapace (Baden et al., 1990).

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There are several reports that manganese can ameliorate the toxicity of other metals to microalgae. For example, Sunda & Huntsman (1998a,b,c) showed that manganese had a protective effect against cadmium uptake in the diatom and the green alga , as cadmium uptake was inversely proportional to the free manganese ion concentration. Skowroński et al. (1988) also showed that manganese (50 mg/litre) ameliorated the toxicity of cadmium in the green microalga . Similarly, in sp., cellular zinc increased as external manganese concentrations decreased (Sunda & Huntsman, 1998a). Manganese (4 µg/litre) has also been shown to ameliorate the toxicity of copper to the marine alga (Stauber & Florence, 1985). Manganese oxides are efficient scavengers of metals due to their low solubility and large surface area. However, manganese is only slowly oxidized in seawater to manganese dioxide. Manganese added to seawater was found to stay as Mn(II), with only 10% oxidized over 3 months. However, in the presence of algae, Mn(II) may be oxidized at the cell surface to Mn(III), probably by superoxide. Manganese associated with the cells (as Mn(II) or Mn(III) hydroxides) adsorbed copper and prevented copper penetration into the cells. For , although there was competitive binding at the cell surface between copper and manganese, copper did not affect intracellular manganese. Manganese was also shown to be an effective scavenger of superoxide radical produced in the chloroplast by the reduction of molecular oxygen. Manganese catalysed the dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, providing further protection for the algal cell.

Manganese can induce iron deficiency in some algae, notably blue-green algae, and this can lead to inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis (Csatorday et al., 1984). The mechanism is thought to be competition for an active site where iron is necessary for functional integrity. Csatorday et al. (1984) found that in the alga , manganese blocks access of iron ions to some functional site involved in the magnesium branch of the tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway in the synthesis of the pigment phycobiliprotein. The site of action was the step after the insertion of magnesium into the protoporphyrin ring. Rousch & Sommerfeld (1999) showed that the chlorophyll content in two filamentous green algae (and ) decreased at 20 mg manganese/litre over 15 days. The decreased chlorophyll content may have been due to an effect on chlorophyll synthesis or increased activity of the enzyme chlorophyllase, which breaks down chlorophyll. Abdel-Basset et al. (1995) also found that the activity of the enzyme chlorophyllase (isolated from two green algae and ) was increased in the presence of 0.1 mg manganese/litre. Filamentous green algal species (and ) common in streams receiving acid mine drainage showed significant growth reductions at 20 mg manganese/litre (as manganese sulfate) in 15-day tests; algae were unaffected by pH levels typical of contaminated streams (Rousch & Sommerfeld, 1999). Wang (1986) reported a 4-day EC50, based on growth, of 31 mg manganese/litre for the common duckweed (). No significant effect on the growth of the aquatic plant was observed at 10 mg manganese/litre (as manganese chloride) in 5-day tests; however, a significant increase in enzymatic activity was found at 1 mg manganese/litre (Byl et al., 1994).

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Most toxicity tests have been carried out using ionic manganese. Little is known about the aquatic toxicity of colloidal, particulate, and complexed manganese; in general, however, toxicities of metals bound into these forms are assumed to be less than those of the aquo-ionic forms. Manganese fungicides have been referred to in this CICAD for source and fate information only, and no attempt has been made to evaluate this group of chemicals for environmental effect. Toxicity tests for the effects of manganese on aquatic biota are summarized in Table 3. For algae, there is a wide range of toxicity values; the most sensitive species appear to be the marine diatom , with a 5-day EC50, based on growth, of 1.5 mg manganese/litre, and a freshwater alga , with a 12-day EC50, based on chlorophyll inhibition, of 1.9 mg manganese/litre.

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One anonymous post doctoral researcher told me: "You shouldtell everyone that it's going to be unpleasant, that it will mess up their lives, that they will have togive up their friends and their social lives for a while.

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Many universities require something like: "I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in the text.

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But it would be crazy to give up at the writing stage, after years of work on the research, and it would be something to regret for a long time.Writing a thesis is tough work.

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