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Synthesis of various nanoparticles within reverse micelles, ..

Control of ribosomal protein synthesis

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Materials | Free Full-Text | Zinc Oxide—From Synthesis …

The liquid at nanometer scale differs substantially from bulk liquid, which is of particular significance for different applications. Herein we report for the first time the formation of nanosized PEG domains in reverse micelles by using supercritical CO2 as the continuous phase. The nanosized PEG domains dispersed in CO2 has many advantages. First, the size and property of nanosized PEG domains can be tuned by the content of PEG. Second, both PEG and CO2 are tunable solvents; the properties of PEG can be easily tuned by the molecular weight of PEG. Besides, these two solvents are environmentally benign. All these special features confer the nanosized PEG domains dispersed in CO2 potential applications in different fields, such as chemical reactions, material synthesis, extraction, and others.

Over the past decade, a number of synthetic routes for producing HAp powders have been developed

Since protein is the major constituent of any cell, growth regulation is closely related to the control of ribosome synthesis. In fact, the number of ribosomes per. Protein genes suggests that ribosomal protein synthesis may be regulated in. 1980, to control for differential loading of RNA on each gel lane. Because the. Ribosomal assembly requires three or four separate ribosomal RNA rRNA molecules as well as ~50–80 ribosomal proteins r-proteins; the exact numbers.

Seed-Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanorods: Role of …

A green method for the synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles using L-ascorbic acid

Ribosome feedback regulation, and growth rate-dependent controls of rRNA synthesis remain to be determined despite numerous investigations. r-protein. REGULATION OF RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN SyNTHESIS. control of ribosomal synthesis can be considered in relation to three basic problems 75.

Sep 5, 1988. The trmD operon of Escherichia coli encodes the ribosomal proteins S16 and L19, the tRNAm1G37methyltransferase and a 21,000 Mr protein. TRNA, and that the synthesis of ribosomal protein, like the synthesis of rRNA, is subject to the influence of the rel gene control system. In exponentially growing.

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Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Application of Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) Nanosheets

Medarova . synthesized a breast tumor-targeted nanodrug designed to specifically shuttle siRNA to human breast cancer while simultaneously allowing for the noninvasive monitoring of the siRNA delivery process []. The nanodrug consisted of SPIONs for MRI monitoring, Cy5.5 fluorescence dye for near-infrared (IR) optical imaging, and siRNA to target the tumor-specific antiapoptotic gene . Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are extensively used as multimodal imaging probes in combination with optical fluorescence dyes to obtain the benefits of optical imaging, such as rapid screening and high sensitivity. Because tumor-associated underglycosylated mucin-1 (uMUC-1) antigen is overexpressed in >90% of breast cancers and in >50% of all cancers in humans [], researchers have decorated nanodrugs with uMUC-1-targeting EPPT synthetic peptides for selective tumor targeting. As shown in Figure A, amine-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a cross-linked dextran coating (MN) have been prepared, and a Cy5.5 dye was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles to produce MN-Cy5.5. Subsequently, thiol-modified, FITC-labeled EPPT peptides and siRNA were coupled to MN-Cy5.5 via a heterofunctional cross-linker, -succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The resulting therapeutic and diagnostic nanodrug (MN-EPPT-siBIRC5) exhibited superparamagnetic and fluorescence properties. After intravenous injection of the nanodrugs into mice with BT-20 breast tumors, the tumors were clearly imaged, as verified simultaneously by T2 MRI and near-IR optical imaging (Figure B). Systemic administration of the nanodrug once a week over 2 weeks induced considerable levels of necrosis and apoptosis in the tumors as a result of the siBIRC5-mediated inhibition of the antiapoptotic survivin protooncogene, translating into a significant decrease in tumor growth rate (Figure C). This tumor-targeted, imaging-capable nanodrug highlights the potential of MRI-guided tumor treatment, which can be used to quantify changes in the tumor volume over the treatment schedule as well as to guide selection of an optimal treatment time course.

Riboflavin is an essential vitamin for cellular metabolism, and the riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is highly upregulated in metabolically active cells [,]. Thus, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), an endogenous RCP ligand, was used as a small molecule targeting ligand for metabolically active cancer or endothelial cells. Kiessling and co-workers synthesized FMN-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (FLUSPIO) as MRI/optical dual probes for cancer detection []. USPIO was coated with FMN through the phosphate groups of FMN, and guanosine monophosphate was added to stabilize the colloid. The hydrodynamic radius of FLUSPIO was 97 ± 3 nm, and an intense fluorescence emission band was observed at 530 nm due to FMN. cellular uptake of FLUSPIO was investigated by MRI (3T), TEM, and fluorescence microscopy of PC3 cells and HUVEC cells. Both PC3 cells and HUVEC cells showed a significantly higher R2 relaxation rate after 1 h incubation with FLUSPIO than with nontargeted USPIO. Such an uptake was considerably reduced by competitive blocking of RCP with free FMN. A strong green fluorescence in the cells was observed after FLUSPIO incubation. The perinuclear fluorescence signal suggested endosomal localization of the nanoparticles, consistent with TEM results, suggesting that FMN could serve as a versatile building block for generating tumor-targeted imaging and therapeutic modalities.

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    Oriental Journal of Chemistry is a peer reviewed quarterly research journal of pure and applied chemistry

  • Dissertations & Theses from 2017

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Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design

In general, nanoparticles tend to aggregate through hydrophobic interactions or attractive van der Waals forces in an effort to minimize the surface energy. In the blood stream, such aggregates can trigger opsonization, the process by which a particle becomes covered with opsonin proteins, thereby making it more visible to the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), such as RES. The phagocytic mechanisms render nanoparticles ineffective as theranostic devices by removing them from the bloodstream []. Therefore, evading uptake by RES and increasing the blood circulation half-life are major challenges for developing theranostic nanoparticles in clinical applications []. Several methods of camouflaging nanoparticles have been developed to yield 'stealth' nanoparticles, which are invisible to MPS. These approaches interfere with the binding of opsonin proteins to the nanoparticle surfaces in support of a long circulation half-life, thereby increasing the chance that the nanoparticles can effectively target tumor sites. In order to impart stealth properties to the nanoparticles, one of the most promising molecules is the FDA-approved PEG. Natural or synthetic polymers, small organic molecules, and core-shell structures have also been utilized for nanoparticle surface coatings. However, a high surface coverage can decrease binding to and uptake by target cancer cells. This section describes the use of several coating molecules as shielding materials. The optimal surface densities of the coating materials and the targeted ligands will be discussed.

Articles | Phase Holographic Imaging

Protein. The substrates of protein synthesis are aminoacylated tRNAs. pared with the control of transcription and. thereafter, protein synthesis on ribosomes. Aug 7, 2017. In E. coli, most ribosomal protein r-protein synthesis is coordinated with. control mechanisms to the regulation of r-protein synthesis, we. The kinetics of synthesis of ribosomal, nonribosomal, and total protein, and of. protein synthesis is regulated by control of initiation of either transcription or.

Multifunctional Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for …

Antibodies are proteins with special Y- shapes. They can specifically recognize and bind to antigens in both the recognition phase (cellular receptors) and during the effectors phase (synthesis and secretion) of humoral immunity. Active targeting by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) combined with SPION is a promising technology for magnetic resonance imaging.

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