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Solar energy facts: Solar energy refers to energy from the sun
During that “,” , , and the rise of grazing and predation had eonic significance. While many critical events in life’s history were unique, one that is not is multicellularity, , and some prokaryotes have multicellular structures, some even with specialized organisms forming colonies. There are , but the primary advantage was size, which would become important in the coming eon of complex life. The rise of complex life might have happened faster than the billion years or so after the basic foundation was set (the complex cell, oxygenic photosynthesis), but geophysical and geochemical processes had their impacts. Perhaps most importantly, the oceans probably did not get oxygenated until just before complex life appeared, as they were sulfidic from 1.8 bya to 700 mya. Atmospheric oxygen is currently thought to have remained at only a few percent at most until about 850 mya, although there are recent arguments that it remained low until only about 420 mya, when large animals began to appear and animals began to colonize land. Just as the atmospheric oxygen content began to rise, then came the biggest ice age in Earth’s history, which probably played a major role in the rise of complex life.
Just as were “invented,” somewhere between 1.6 bya and 600 mya a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium and both survived, and that cyanobacterium became the ancestor of all chloroplasts, which is the photosynthetic organelle in all plants. As with similar previous events, it appears that it , and all plants are descended from that unique event. The invention of the chloroplast , which were the first plants. The first algae fossils are from about 1.2 bya. Most algae species are not called plants, as they are not descended from that instance when a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium. The non-plant algae, such as , also have chloroplasts, from various “envelopment” events when algae chloroplasts were eaten and the grazers and chloroplasts survived. Below is the general outline of the tree of life today, in which bacteria and archaea combined to make eukaryotic cells, and in which the bacterium enveloped into a protist to make plants, and all complex life developed from protists. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
Solar Energy and Energy Independence
As with the , the molecular evidence shows that virtually all major orders of mammals existed before the end-Cretaceous extinction. The Paleocene‘s Mammalian Explosion appears to have not been a genetic event, but an ecological one; mammals quickly adapted to empty niches that non-avian dinosaurs left behind. The kinds of mammals that appeared in the Paleocene and afterward illustrate the idea that body features and size are conditioned by their environment, which includes other organisms. With the sauropods' demise, high grazers of conifers never reappeared, but many mammals developed ornithischian eating habits and many attained similar size. That phenomenon illustrates the , in which assemblages of vastly different animals can inhabit similar ecological niches. The guild concept is obvious with the many kinds of animals that formed reefs in the past; the , , , , , , , and reefs all had similarities, particularly in their shape and location, but the organisms comprising them, from reef-forming organisms to reef denizens and the apex predators patrolling them, had radical changes during the . If you squinted and blurred your vision, most of those reefs from different periods would appear strikingly similar, but when you focused, the variation in organisms could be astounding. The woodpecker guild is comprised of animals that eat insects living under tree bark. But in Madagascar, where no woodpeckers live, a , with a middle finger that acts as the woodpecker’s bill. In New Guinea, . In the Galapagos Islands, a to acquire those insects. In Australia, , but unlike the others, they have not developed a probing body part, nor do they use tools, but just rip off the bark with the brute force of their beaks.
When sea levels rise as dramatically as they did in the Cretaceous, coral reefs will be buried under rising waters and the ideal position, for both photosynthesis and oxygenation, is lost, and reefs can die, like burying a tree’s roots. About 125 mya, reefs made by , which thrived on , began to displace reefs made by stony corals. They may have prevailed because they could tolerate hot and saline waters better than stony corals could. About 116 mya, an , probably caused by volcanism, which temporarily halted rudist domination. But rudists flourished until the late Cretaceous, when they went extinct, perhaps due to changing climate, although there is also evidence that the rudists . Carbon dioxide levels steadily fell from the early Cretaceous until today, temperatures fell during the Cretaceous, and hot-climate organisms gradually became extinct during the Cretaceous. Around 93 mya, , perhaps caused by underwater volcanism, which again seems to have largely been confined to marine biomes. It was much more devastating than the previous one, and rudists were hit hard, although it was a more regional event. That event seems to have , and a family of . On land, , some of which seem to have , also went extinct. There had been a decline in sauropod and ornithischian diversity before that 93 mya extinction, but it subsequently rebounded. In the oceans, biomes beyond 60 degrees latitude were barely impacted, while those closer to the equator were devastated, which suggests that oceanic cooling was related. shows rising oxygen and declining carbon dioxide in the late Cretaceous, which reflected a general cooling trend that began in the mid-Cretaceous. Among the numerous hypotheses posited, late Cretaceous climate changes have been invoked for slowly driving dinosaurs to extinction, in the “they went out with a whimper, not a bang” scenario. However, it seems that dinosaurs did go out with a bang. A big one. Ammonoids seem to have been brought to the brink with nearly marine mass extinctions during their tenure on Earth, and it was no different with that late-Cretaceous extinction. Ammonoids recovered once again, and their lived in the late Cretaceous, but the end-Cretaceous extinction marked their final appearance as they went the way of and other iconic animals.
Energy, photosynthesis, and Energy conversions in …
In today’s hunter-gatherer societies, the EROI for killing large animals dwarfs all other food sources. The EROI, of calories produced divided by those burned during the hours of labor invested, for large game (a deer, for example), is more than 100, and on average four times that of small game, fifteen times that of birds, about eight times that of roots and tubers, and 10-15 times that of seeds and nuts. The hunter-gatherer EROI for seeds, nuts, and birds is around ten-to-one. An average-sized adult African elephant carcass provides about 13 million calories, which would sustain a band of 12 people for a year if they could eat it all before it rotted and did not die of protein poisoning. The EROI for those easily killed proboscideans when humans invaded the Western Hemisphere could have been in the hundreds and even more than one thousand. Large animals have always been the mother lode of hunter-gatherer peoples, and the consensus among anthropologists is that no instincts urge a hunter to kill only what is needed, but a hunter will kill whatever he can. That finding partly derives from studying modern hunter-gatherers. There is no doubt that when early humans intruded into environments that never before encountered humans, where animals would have had no intrinsic fear of humans, people would have had an exceptionally easy time killing all large animals encountered. Animals without experience around humans, such as Antarctic penguins, are easily approached and killed. As happened innumerable times in the historical era, intruding humans killed all the naïve animals that they could. The only animals that survived developed a healthy fear of humans and avoided them, but how many could develop that fear before they were all killed? From the very beginning of the , . More than 500 million years later, a new kind of animal appeared that turned that advantage into a fatal disadvantage, as it found a way to mine that energy stored in large animals, and it quickly plundered it to exhaustion whenever it could.
People are usually surprised to hear that grass is a relatively recent plant innovation. and only became common in the late Cretaceous, along with flowering plants. With grass, some , and grazers have been plentiful Cenozoic herbivores. According to , carbon dioxide levels have been falling nearly continuously for the past 150-100 million years. Not only has that decline progressively cooled Earth to the point where we live in an ice age today, but is currently considered the key reason why complex life may become extinct on Earth in several hundred million years. In the Oligocene, between 32 mya and 25 mya some plants developed a during photosynthesis known as . It allowed plants to adapt to reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. C4 plants became in the Miocene, and grasses are today’s most common C4 plants and . The rest of Earth’s photosynthesizers use or , which is a water-conserving process used in arid biomes.
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Often, a species will not become extinct but its population will be reduced to small number, called a “,” usually in where they can ride out the storm, to have their population expand again when conditions improve. That isolation can cause speciation but can also cause extinction. When a bottleneck happens, the genetic diversity of the population will largely vanish, which can make it more vulnerable. A bottlenecked population can go extinct, can speciate, can undergo an adaptive radiation when conditions improve, or can remain in its refugia and can become a living fossil. The , as it outlived all of its cousins by hundreds of millions of years. Coelacanths have a similar strategy to the , which , to rise at night to feed on the reefs, and all of its cousins long ago went extinct. Humans seem to have , as have , most of which are in threatened status today. In the Devonian extinctions, species were reduced by half during the and the remaining population became bottlenecked. From that bottlenecked situation, the event annihilated the remaining armored fish.
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After nine months or when you reach to a 44 minutes level, you should give up sun gazing since solar science prohibits further gazing for the sake of eye care. The body will get discharged when you stop practicing, which has to be recharged. Now you have to start walking on bare foot on bare earth for 45 minutes daily for a total of 6 days. Relaxed walking only. No need to walk briskly, jog or run. Any convenient time of the day is all right, however it is preferred to do that when the earth is warmer and the sunlight is falling on your body. When you walk bare foot, an important gland in the brain's center called the pineal gland or the third eye is activated. The big toe of the foot represents this gland. 25 years ago it was considered a useless gland. Now it has become an important gland for study and up to now, about 18,000 papers have been published about it. It has always been known as the Seat of the soul. The Pineal gland has optic nerve endings. The remaining four toes represent glands too -- pituitary, hypothalamus, thalamus and amygdala. Amygdala for the last 2 years has been gaining importance in medical research. It's a nucleus of the sun or cosmic energy and plays an important role in the photosynthesis via the sunlight reaching the brain through the eye. When you walk bare foot, your body weight stimulates all these 5 glands through your toes. This is strengthened by the earth heat/energy and the sun prana falling on the head or the crown chakra. The chakras are not in the spinal cord that is an imaginary location; they are definitely in the brain. All these create a magnetic field and the body/brain recharges with the energy of the sun entering in you. Relax. Walk 45 minutes for one year and food continues to be away from you. After one year of recharging, if you are satisfied with your progress you can give up barefoot walking. Few minutes of sun energy falling on you once in 3-4 days will be enough from then on.
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